MODEL KOLABORASI PERAWAT SANITARIAN DALAM PELAYANAN KESEHATAN PENDERITA DIARE BALITA DI KOMUNITAS

Muryoto 1, Atik Badi'ah

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Latar Belakang : Penyakit diare masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat di Indonesia, di Kabupaten Sleman insiden rate diare 34,8 per seribu penduduk atau 2909 balita dengan cakupan pelayanan 70% di Puskesmas Gamping I sekitar 325 balita (Profil Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Sleman, 2013). Kolaborasi perawat dan sanitarian dalam pelayanan kesehatan di komunitas menggunakan pendekatan input-proses-output-efek-outcome.  Input meliputi jumlah penderita diare balita, perawat, sanitarian, program lintas tuntas diare. Proses meliputi penemuan penderita diregister di Puskesmas, pemeriksaan balita, botol susu, sumber air, terapi, desinfeksi, klorinasi dan konseling.  Sedangkan output meliputi jumlah balita diare yang dilayani dua kali selama empat belas hari. Efek berupa penurunan skor dehidrasi out come berupa turunnya angka kesakitan diare. Tujuan :Penelitian ini bertujuan secara umum membuat model pelayanan kesehatan kolaborasi perawat sanitarian penderita diare balita dikomunitas yang dapat mencegah dan menurunkan derajat dehidrasi. Secara khusus bertujuan menetapkan pengaruh pelayanan kesehatan kolaborasi perawat sanitarian terhadap penurunan derajat dehidrasi.  Metode : Jenis penelitianQuasi eksperiment dengan rancangan“Pre test Post test with Control Design“.Penderita diare balita3 (tiga) bulan yang lalu dicatatan medis Puskesmas diambil secara sistimatis random sampling 15 (lima belas) balita untuk kelompok kontrol dan 15 (lima belas) balita untuk kelompok perlakuan. Uji analisa data menggunakan t test. Hasil :Ada pengaruh kolaborasi terhadap penurunan skor dehidrasi anak balita diare, tidak ada pengaruh kolaborasi terhadap penurunan jumlah kuman botol susu anak balita diare. Ada pengaruh kolaborasi terhadap penurunan MPN E Coli air bersih anak balita diare. Ada pengaruh kolaborasi terhadap penurunan MPN Coliform air bersih anak balita diare. Kesimpulan :Ada pengaruh pelayanan kesehatan kolaborasi perawat sanitarian terhadap penurunan skor derajat dehidrasi penderita diare balita. Saran : Dalam kolaborasi perawat sanitarian ditingkat internal program Puskesmas perlu dibuatkan panduan yang memuat etika profesi sesuai lingkup kerja dan fungsinya.

Kata Kunci : Model Kolaborasi, Perawat, Sanitarian, Pelayanan Kesehatan, Penderita diare

ABSTRACT

Background : Diarrhea disease is still a public health problem in Indonesia, in Sleman District incidence rate of diarrhea 34,8 per thousand population or 2909 under fives with coverage 70% service in PuskesmasGamping I about 325 balita (Profile of Sleman District Health Office, 2013). Collaboration of nurses and sanitarians in community health services using an input-process-output-effect-outcome approach. Inputs include the number of patients with diarrhea toddlers, nurses, sanitarians, diarrhea diarrhea programs. The process includes the findings of patients enrolled in Puskesmas, checking for infants, bottles of milk, water sources, therapy, disinfection, chlorination and counseling. While the output includes the number of infant diarrhea that is served twice for fourteen days. The effect of decreasing the dehydration score out come is the decrease of morbidity rate of diarrhea. Objective : This study aims at generating a model of healthcare services for the collaboration of sanitarian nurses with diarrhea in children under five who can prevent and reduce dehydration. Specifically aimed at establishing the influence of sanitarian nurse collaboration health services on dehydration degrees reduction. Method : Quasi experimental research type with "Pre testPost test with Control Design"  Patients with child diarrhea 3 (three) months ago medical Puskesmas was taken by systematic random sampling of 15 (fifteen) children under five for control group and 15 (fifteen) children under five for treatment group. Test data analysis using t-test. Result: There is influence of collaboration to decrease dehydration score of children under five diarrhea, there is no influence of collaboration to decrease amount of germ of baby milk bottle diarrhea. There is a collaboration effect on the decrease of MPN E Coli clean water for children under five diarrhea. There is a collaboration effect on the decrease of MPN Coliform clean water of children under five diarrhea. Conclusion: There is influence of health service of sanitarian nurse collaboration to decrease of dehydration degrees score of diarrhea sufferer. Suggestion: In the collaboration of sanitarian nurses at the internal level of the Puskesmas program, it is necessary to create guidelines that contain professional ethics according to the scope of work and function.

Keywords: Collaboration Model, Nurse, Sanitarian, Health Service, Diarrhea Patient


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